A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. Jan 27, 2019 the overall aim of the research is to develop a screening scale for antenatal anxiety that can be used by midwives and other health professionals to identify women with elevated levels of. Currently no scales are available for pregnancyrelated anxiety with sound theoretical and psychometric properties. The cytokine profile of women with severe anxiety and. How to cope with anxiety and depression during pregnancy. If youd like some help dealing with stress or anxiety, ask your healthcare provider to refer you to a therapist, who can better assess how strong your anxiety has become and what you may need to do to feel better. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale 1 epds postpartum depression is the most common complication of childbearing. Pregnancyrelated anxiety pra has been strongly linked to preterm births, pregnancy complications and negative infant outcomes in research from many highincome countries.
Pregnant women with high levels of stress, depression andor anxiety are at increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes and impaired neurologic and emotional development of the offspring. Two decades later, light and fenster 1974 devel oped a 62item inventory to assess maternal concerns during pregnancy related to the baby. Pregnancy anxiety is different from general anxiety. Pdf background anxiety disorders and selfreported symptoms are highly prevalent in pregnancy. Comparative efficacy of the generalized anxiety disorder 7item scale and the edinburgh postnatal depression scale as screening tools for generalized anxiety disorder in pregnancy and the postpartum period.
Levin1991, the pregnancyrelated anxiety questionnaire praq. What to look for becoming a parent can be a pretty stressful time everythings new and it can take a while to find your feet. The literature indicates that some women find these changes to be stressful. In rare cases, the symptoms are severe and indicate potential danger to the mother and baby. Development of a stress scale for pregnant women in the south. But if you feel anxious most of the time and find it difficult to relax you may need help. Women who are anxious, experience both emotional and somatic symptoms such as worry, muscle pain, palpitation, insomnia, and gastrointestinal discomfort 2. Our findings suggest that the pregnancyrelated anxiety scale tapping five dimensions of pregnancyrelated anxiety and the pregnancy outcome questionnaire with six items pertaining to the consequences of pregnancyrelated anxiety can respectively be considered the most useful tools for assessing the existence and severity of the concept.
Women encounter physical, emotional, and psychological changes during pregnancy. This paper presents a measurement model of a tenitem scale of maternal anxiety during pregnancy. Using confirmatory factor analysis, its reliability and validity. Results show metric and scalar invariance, indicating that the praqr2 measures similar constructs on the same scale for all pregnant women. The initial 82 items were pretested by a group of experts in the field of pregnancy and a sample of 40 women. Over the last 2 weeks, how often have you been bothered by the following problems. Pregnancyspecific worries, using the 10item pregnancyrelated anxiety scale. Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder. Validation of the anxiety scale for pregnancy in a sample. The pregnancyrelated anxiety scale has acceptable internal reliability cronbachs. Feb 27, 2019 anxiety during pregnancy is termed prenatal anxiety, while it is called postnatal anxiety if it occurs in the period from delivery to one year postpartum. Pregnancy specific instruments to measure psychological functioning during gestation are scarce and do not define items based on indepth interviews of pregnant and recently delivered women. The good news is that depression in pregnancy can be treated.
Physical symptoms like dizziness, hot flashes, and nausea. Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, anxiety subscale. A qualitative study of pregnancyrelated anxiety among women. Pdf the initial development of the pregnancyrelated anxiety scale.
Facts about pregnancy anxiety and postpartum anxiety. New screening tool helps detect severe anxiety in pregnancy. Weeks pregnant babys age over the past month, how often have you experienced the following. Anxiety symptoms in pregnancy can relate to several anxiety types, such as general anxiety, anxiety disorders, and pregnancyrelated anxiety pra. The anxiety, worry, or physical symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. May 14, 2015 the 10item pregnancyrelated anxiety questionnairerevised praqr is a widely used instrument to assess and identify pregnancyspecific anxiety in nulliparous women. Nonetheless, the praqr is not designed for use in parous women, as particularly one item of the questionnaire is not relevant for.
Without treatment, symptoms may last a few weeks, months, or even years. The anxiety subscale of the edinburgh postnatal depression scale can be used for this purpose. Practical skills to help you overcome anxiety, worry, panic attacks, obsessions, and compulsions a new harbinger selfhelp workbook pamela s. Sometimes they experience anxiety alone, and sometimes they experience it in addition to depression. The cws assesses prenatal anxiety with 17 items rated on a 5point scale and with mean scale scores ranging from 0 to 5. Zung selfrating anxiety scale mental health professionals. Anxiety during pregnancy places the woman at greater risk for postpartum depression and may. Several studies suggest that postpartum anxiety is relatively common among postpartum women and may even be more common than depression. Development of a stress scale for pregnant women in the. Visit the babycenter community to connect with other momstobe grappling with similar issues. Psychometric properties of the german version of the. Emerging evidence also suggests that a large number of postpartum women who do not meet diagnostic criteria for a specific anxiety disorder yet experience a clinically significant anxiety symptoms which are distinct from anxiety experienced at other times of. Development of the tilburg pregnancy distress scale. Coping with anxiety during pregnancy and following the birth 20 bc reproductive mental health program 4 this guide has information and exercises that can help women with anxiety modules 2 through 6 in this guide are written in the voice of a healthcare provider talking to a woman with anxiety during pregnancy and following the birth.
If left untreated, anxiety can make it difficult to enjoy your pregnancy and getting to know your baby, as well as harder to cope with the challenges of caring for a newborn. Anxiety scale for pregnancy asp in a sample of iranian women. Adaption of pregnancy anxiety questionnairerevised for all. Normal pregnancy related changes, such as increased heart rate, shortness of breath, heartburn, dizziness, and sweating, can easily be misinterpreted as harmful. It has good psychometric values and predictive validity for birth and childhood outcomes.
Concurrent validity was demonstrated through the strong. Their findings suggest that attitudes toward pregnancy account for a moderate amount of variance in pregnancy anxiety and that predictors of pregnancy anxiety are largely invariant across pregnancy stages. Understanding pregnancy anxiety concepts, correlates, and consequences christine m. The subscales sociomedical centering around birth and handling of the baby and health of the baby show similarities to fogb and wahc. The statetrait anxiety inventory stai, a widely used measure of general anxiety, has also been commonly used in research on pregnancy. Despite their negative impact on maternal and child. Mq36112 3000129011 this instrument is designed for screening purposes only and is not to be used as a diagnostic tool.
This 31item questionnaire is easy to complete and score, is sensitive to how anxiety presents in perinatal women and may be used in a. Abstract stress in pregnancy can lead to lowbirthweight and preterm babies and to psychological consequences such as anxiety and depression during pregnancy and the puerperium. Clinically the need for such a scale is highlighted by the potential intervention opportunities this may afford. Prenatal depression and anxiety can strike any expectant mother. Certain items on the edinburgh postnatal depression scale epds may help to identify women. The symptoms of anxiety during pregnancy or postpartum might include. The 10item pregnancyrelated anxiety questionnairerevised praqr is a widely used instrument to assess and identify pregnancyspecific anxiety in nulliparous women. The development of the anxiety scale for pregnancy asp was based on his research of state anxiety. Please tick the response that most closely describes your experience for every question. Learn about the symptoms, risk factors, and treatment options for these common mental health conditions. Pregnancy anxiety is a particular emotional state tied to pregnancy specific concerns, such as worries about the health of the baby and childbirth.
The facts about pregnancy and postpartum anxiety april 17, 2015 there has been a growing awareness about postpartum depression over the past decade and doctors offices now routinely screen moms for it but i think anxiety, during pregnancy and after having a baby, is nearly as common and just as debilitating. Anxiety during pregnancy is termed prenatal anxiety, while it is called postnatal anxiety if it occurs in the period from delivery to one year postpartum. If the anxiety impacts your ability to function in daytoday life, or if you feel you cant control or put a lid on it, its excessive. The factor structure of the pregnancy anxiety scale jstor. Understanding pregnancy anxiety chris dunkel schetter ucla. Previous scales to measure stress contain items that overlap with the symptoms of pregnancy. Approximately 6% of pregnant women and 10% of postpartum women develop anxiety. Validation of the anxiety scale for pregnancy in a sample of. Our findings suggest that the pregnancy related anxiety scale tapping five dimensions of pregnancy related anxiety and the pregnancy outcome questionnaire with six items pertaining to the consequences of pregnancy related anxiety can respectively be considered the most useful tools for assessing the existence and severity of the concept. The overall aim of the research is to develop a screening scale for antenatal anxiety that can be used by midwives and other health professionals to identify women with elevated levels of. Visual analogue scale definitely no definitely yes. Oct 26, 2011 pregnant women with high levels of stress, depression andor anxiety are at increased risk for adverse perinatal outcomes and impaired neurologic and emotional development of the offspring.
Pregnancyrelated anxiety was assessed by means of the pregnancy anxiety scale cronbachs alpha 0. Fear of childbirth and pregnancyrelated anxiety in women. They may respond to this stress by feeling anxious. Adapting and testing a brief intervention to reduce maternal. Nov 26, 2015 if the anxiety impacts your ability to function in daytoday life, or if you feel you cant control or put a lid on it, its excessive. The occurrence of pregnancyspecific anxiety has been proposed as a distinct syndrome 28 and a number of studies have investigated this unique anxiety type. Its natural to feel a bit anxious when youre pregnant. Researchers in western australia developed and tested the perinatal anxiety screening scale or pass to specifically screen for a broad range of anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Normal pregnancyrelated changes, such as increased heart rate, shortness of breath, heartburn, dizziness, and sweating, can easily be misinterpreted as harmful. These measures include constructs such as fear of childbirth, foetal health and wellbeing, bearing a physically. Assessing maternal anxiety in pregnancy with the state. Diagnosis and management of generalized anxiety disorder and. Levin1991, the pregnancy related anxiety questionnaire praq. Managing stress and anxiety during pregnancy babycenter.
Pregnancy related anxiety was assessed by means of the pregnancy anxiety scale cronbachs alpha 0. Women exhibiting severe depression sd and severe anxiety sa during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy n 9 and control subjects exhibiting neither depression nor anxiety n 40 were assessed through the hamilton depression rating scale hdrs and the hamilton anxiety rating scale hars. It is a relatively distinct syndrome which is provoked by pregnancyspecific fears and worries 4. Validation of the anxiety scale for pregnancy in a sample of iranian. The lack of measures with a sufficient evidence base constitutes a considerable barrier to the identification of pregnant women experiencing. Women under 25 years of age were at an increased risk of anxiety symptoms during early pregnancy or 2. Future research should be directed towards the development of such a scale. Symptoms of antenatal anxiety range from compromised sleep and an inability to concentrate, to physical manifestations such as tightness in the chest, dizziness or heart palpitations. Pregnancyrelated anxiety is a distinct anxiety characterised by pregnancyspecific concerns. Pdf available in bjpsych open 51 january 2019 with 360 reads. A growing body of research demonstrates that pregnancy anxiety is an important risk factor for preterm birth and other adverse birth and child development outcomes.379 1459 915 176 385 202 1415 1545 1327 108 1255 606 1452 267 1485 394 1533 1504 850 918 658 72 330 386 240 395 76 874 433 695 753 824 1055 1401 946 146 1084 1496 956 501 716 598 1222 1139